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What is radiation?

What happens when cells are exposed to radiation?

In this case, an electron is emitted from the atom.
Let's take a look at the structure of an atom.

In the center of the atom is a nucleus.
Traveling around the nucleus are electrons.

If the atom were the size of a baseball field, the nucleus would be smaller than a golf ball.

Electrons can be forced from their orbit by energy from radiation. This process is called ionization or electrolytic dissociation.
Model of atom
Model of atom
initial reaction to radiation
minor damage to a cell
Image of initial reaction to radiation
Image of minor damage to a cell
Different from electron exchange in typical chemical reactions, predicting which electrons will be emitted by exposure to radiation is impossible. Ions, also called radicals, generated in this way are extremely unstable chemically. They have very high levels of chemical reactivity, and therefore generate indiscriminate chemical reactions. Radiation and electrons bombarded by radiation move haphazardly inside the cell, resulting in damage to the various molecules forming the cell. Chromosomal DNA inside the cell nucleus can also be damaged.